Here is a list of Integration related terms that you may come across when working with GLU.Ware.

API Gateway
An API Gateway points to backend APIs and services and abstracts them in a layer that can be managed by the API Manager agent. Consumer applications that invoke your services and APIs are routed to the endpoints exposed by the gateway, enforcing runtime policies while collecting and tracking analytics data. The API Gateway separates management from implementation concerns for all your backend services and APIs. It also allows you to take advantage of the governance capabilities of the GLU.Engine APIs, such as applying policies, enforcing security, and managing contracts.
API Manager
An API Manager is a software platform that provides centralised management and governance for APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). An API Manager typically provides functionalities such as: API documentation and discovery, API security and access control, API versioning and lifecycle management, API analytics and monitoring, API monetisation and billing. GLU’s API Manager component is part of GLU.Control.
Audit History
The activities of users of the GLU.Console are logged so as to generate an Audit History on each GLU.Engine.
Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or entity. In other words, it is the process of proving that a user is who they claim to be. Authentication can be done using various methods, such as passwords, biometrics (e.g., fingerprint, face recognition), or smart cards. The purpose of authentication is to ensure that only authenticated users have access to sensitive resources.
Authorisation, on the other hand, is the process of granting or denying access to resources or services. Authorisation is based on the identity and permissions of the user or entity. Once a user has been authenticated, the system checks their permissions to determine whether they are authorised to access the requested resource or perform the requested action. For example, a user may be authenticated but only authorised to view certain files or perform certain tasks.
Build Manager
The tool used to manage the build process associated with your GLU configuration. The Build Manager produces the GLU.Engine.
Citizen Integrators
A domain specialist without a programming background, who can use tools (and not code) to integrate and extend business software applications. The complexity of such integrations is typically limited. With GLU.Ware the Enterprise Innovator is empowered to handle the more complex integration scenarios.
Any interface (inbound or outbound) attached to a GLU.Engine. Inbound Connectors are APIs.
Data Silo 
A data silo is a situation wherein only one group in an organisation can access a set or source of data. An in-person example would be when several departments or groups within that organisation do not want to share information or knowledge with other individuals they work with.
The combination of cultural philosophies, practices, and tools increases an organisation’s ability to deliver applications and services at high velocity: evolving and improving products at a faster pace than organisations using traditional software development and infrastructure management processes.
Docker Container
A Docker Container is a lightweight, stand-alone, and executable software package that includes everything needed to run a piece of software, including the code, runtime, system tools, libraries, and settings. Docker Containers can be used to package and distribute GLU.Engines, allowing teams to consistently deploy the same GLU.Engine across multiple environments, providing consistency and reproducibility in the development pipeline. Docker Containers also provide isolation, making it easier to manage dependencies and reduce the risk of conflicts, and ease of management, making it easier to automate the deployment and scaling of applications.
ERP System
Enterprise resource planning systems refer to a type of software that organisations use to manage day-to-day business activities such as accounting, procurement, project management, risk management and compliance, and supply chain operations. Examples being Microsoft Dynamics, SAGE, Oracle e-Business Suite
Extract, transform, load type of data integration that refers to the three steps (extract, transform, load) used to blend data from multiple sources.
End Point
Any system that talks to the GLU.Engine be it a Source system or a Target system or where the GLU.Engines handle the exchange of messages between these systems. End Points interface with GLU.Engines via an Inbound Connector exposed on a GLU.Engine and any downstream system that is uniquely identified by it’s host details (unique IP Address and Port combination or URL) to which a GLU.Engine connects
The ability for a GLU.Engine to itself add to a message payload being handled for example to create a timestamp upon receipt of a message that can then be used later on in the flow.
Enterprise Innovator
A persona ‘coined’ by GLU that describes GLU.Ware users. With GLU.Ware, users are empowered to bring the ability to drive Enterprise grade innovation programs that are founded on complex integration scenarios and orchestrations. The Enterprise Innovator is the next generation beyond the realms of the ‘Citizen Integrator’ (the persona coined by Gartner in ~2018 that puts the ability to integrate systems into the hands of the ‘Citizen’ – in GLU’s view, these integration scenario’s however are typically simple in nature).
Enterprise Service Bus
An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is a software architecture model with a set of rules and principles for integrating applications. In Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), an ESB replaces point-to-point integration, and ESB products enable users to build this type of architecture.
Enterprise System / Software
A software solution that provides business logic and tools to model entire business processes for organisations to improve productivity and efficiency. Examples include billing systems, customer relationship management systems and supplier relationship management systems.
Unique label used in the GLU.Console Integration Builder to identify each step in a Transaction flow. Flowcode’s are used by Handlers to identify orchestration endpoints and redirect the flow of a transactions.
Refers to GLU.GEARs – an acronym for GLU Ecosystem AcceleRators – being value add business solutions that are build on top of the GLU.Ware integration framework.
The Configuration User Interface used to configure GLU.Engines – their Connectors, Orchestrations, and to manage the SDLC and Build Process. It is also used to access the Configuration UI for GLU Value Added Services such as GLU.USSD
Configured in the GLU.Console, then downloaded and used by the Customer for the provision of the required Integration or associated VAS services.
GraphQL is a query language and runtime for APIs. It was developed as an alternative to REST and SOAP, two of the most commonly used API protocols. Unlike REST, which exposes a large number of endpoints for each resource, GraphQL exposes a single endpoint and allows clients to specify exactly what data they need.
Used to define routing rules within the flow of each transaction. Handlers can be attached to any received API Request or received Response from an outbound connector. There is no limit to the number of Handlers one can attached to any such received payload. Handler logic runs sequentially i.e. in the order that the Handlers are configured unless a Handler rule is processed to change the route.
Infrastructure as a service is a cloud-based service, pay-as-you-go for services such as storage, networking and virtualisation. Examples being – DigitalOcean, Linode, Rackspace, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Cisco Metapod, Microsoft Azure and Google Compute Engine (GCE).
Integration Builder
The Integration Builder is used to configure the APIs your GLU.Engine will expose, the Outbound Connectors and the Orchestration logic using Handlers that will direct the transaction flows. More detail here.
JavaScript Object Notation is a standard text-based format for representing structured data based on JavaScript object syntax. Used for transmitting data in web applications for example sending some data from the server to the client so it can be displayed on a web page.
Apache JMeter is a popular open-source tool used for performance testing. It is primarily used to test the performance and scalability of web applications, but it can also be used to test other types of applications, such as databases, FTP servers, and more. It is a is a tool that allows testers to simulate a high number of users accessing an application and to measure the application’s performance and scalability under load.
Key Management
Key Management is the process of generating, distributing, and securely storing cryptographic keys used for encrypting and decrypting sensitive data. It is a critical component of system security, ensuring that sensitive information is protected during transmission and storage. Effective key management helps to prevent unauthorized access and ensures the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of sensitive information.
GLU.Control uses Keycloak, it is an open-source identity and access management (IAM) system, developed by Red Hat. It provides a centralised solution for managing user authentication, authorisation, and security policies across multiple GLU.Engine API’s that are managed within GLU.Control. Keycloak supports various identity protocols, including OpenID Connect, OAuth 2.0, and SAML 2.0. It provides a web-based administration console for managing users, roles, permissions, and security policies, and also supports features like single sign-on (SSO), social login, two-factor authentication, and user federation. With Keycloak, GLU Analysts can add authentication and authorisation capabilities to their GLU API’s without having to implement these features themselves. This can help save time and reduce security risks, as the GLU.Engine can rely on Keycloak’s proven security mechanisms. Keycloak is available under the Apache License 2.0, which means it can be used and modified freely without any licensing fees. It has a large and active community of users and contributors, who provide support and contribute to the ongoing development of the project.
Legacy Systems
In the context of computing, legacy systems are outdated computer systems, methods, technologies, or applications that are still used.
A high-performance computer, employed mainly in large organizations, capable of supporting high-volume, bulk data processing operations.
Marshalling refers to the process of transforming the representation of an object or data into a specific format that is suitable for storage, transmission, or communication between different parts of a computer program or between different systems. In a GLU.Engine, the transformed data is stored as a “marshalled” object in a ‘GLU object model’ and can be later transformed back into its original format (unmarshalled) for use or further processing.
Microservice End Point
Means an internal End Point / host, within the Client’s security domain (so no SSL or other security related handling required) that only serves one function or service and that is singular of purpose or ‘micro-service’ like, i.e. a single Request / Response message pair is involved and it uses JSON payloads only. For example a micro-service accessed via a JSON/REST API to verify the registration status of a MSISDN.
No Code
A no-code platform is a development platform that uses a visual development environment that allows anyone to create something. When it comes to TeamDynamix, our iPaaS solution uses a codeless visual flow builder with drag and drop functionality to create automated workflows. 
OAuth 2.0
OAuth 2.0 is primarily used for authorisation, allowing an application to access a user’s resources on a resource server, without the user having to share their credentials (e.g., username and password) with the application. It provides a way for users to grant access to their data to third-party applications, such as social media platforms or productivity apps, without giving them full access to their accounts.

OAuth 2.0 is what OpenID Connect runs on, the difference is that OpenID Connect is just OAuth 2.0 with additional ‘Scopes’. Scopes are like permissions e.g. to make your email address or avatar or contacts available to the application.
OpenID Connect / OIDC
OpenID Connect, is built on top of OAuth 2.0 and provides an authentication layer on top of the authorisation protocol. It allows users to authenticate with a third-party application using their existing identity, such as a Google or Facebook account. This means that users don’t have to create new credentials for each application they use, and they can log in with a single click.

OAuth 2.0 is primarily used for authorisation, while OpenID Connect provides an authentication layer on top of OAuth 2.0.
Orchestration Manager
Within the Integration Builder use the Orchestration Manager section in ‘Green’ of the Transaction pattern to define the downstream Receiving System transaction step or steps for each transaction being configured. There is no limit to the number of receiving systems that can be addressed within the definition of a single transaction. More detail here.
Typically reference to a ‘Package’ refers to an ISO 8583 packager which is software or library that helps encode and decode data according to the ISO 8583 specification. ISO 8583 messages are structured into fields, with each field having a unique identifier and length. The packager is responsible for packing or unpacking these fields into a binary message format, which can be transmitted between systems over various communication channels.

The packager typically handles tasks such as validating input data, formatting the message according to the ISO 8583 specification, and handling any error conditions that may arise during the message processing. Overall, the packager provides a standardized way to encode and decode ISO 8583 messages, ensuring compatibility between different financial systems and networks.
Protocol Converter
A GLU.Engine is at it’s heart a Protocol Converter, it is a software component that is used to translate data between different communication protocols. It enables communication between systems that use different protocols, allowing them to exchange information and integrate their processes. Protocol converters play a crucial role in system integration by facilitating interoperability between different systems.
A data structure that holds a collection of messages or requests that are waiting to be processed. In integration, queues are often used to buffer messages between different systems to ensure that data is processed in an orderly and controlled manner.
Representation State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that specifies constraints that if applied to a web service, induce desirable properties, such as performance, scalability, and modifiability, that enable services to work on the Web.
A technology roadmap is a flexible planning technique to support strategic and long-range planning, by matching short-term and long-term goals with specific technology solutions. Create roadmaps to plan out strategic technology initiatives in the future, for instance migrating to different software systems or rolling out software updates.DevOps RoadmapInfrastructure RoadmapSoftware Roadmap
SDLC Context Awareness
SDLC Context Awareness describes the ability for a GLU.Engine to embed within it all SDLC Environment specific details for each End Point / system being connected. Host details (IP/Port) and SSL credentials will often change when moving for example from a Test to a Production environment. The GLU.Engine Environments Tool along with the Connectors tool are used to define the GLU.Engine specific SDCL and all associated Connectors settings.
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a lightweight XML-based messaging protocol that specifies the exchange of information in the implementation of web services. SOAP messages are independent of any operating system or protocol.
An isolated environment on a network that mimics end-user operating environments. Used to safely execute suspicious code without risking harm to the host device or network.
Service Oriented Architecture
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is software architecture based on the creation of a repository of standardized and reusable services which can be composed into an aggregate service to automate a business process. This is known as service-orientation.
Software as a Service
Software as a Service (SaaS) is a way of delivering applications via the Internet as a web-based service. Access over the Internet means there is no need to download or maintain any software.
Spaghetti Code
Often referred to as “point-to-point integration”, spaghetti code is source code written without a coherent structure. Often custom integrations, these connections have no central way to monitor or troubleshoot. This is not effective for scaling given the tight dependency between applications.
A set of tools for creating, implementing and describing a standardised RESTful API specification, known as Open API.
The process of converting data from one format to another, typically from a source format to a target format, in order to facilitate data exchange and integration between different systems.
Transport Layer Protocol
A communication protocol that provides a standardised mechanism for transmitting data between systems, including features such as error checking, flow control, and data compression. Examples of transport layer protocols include TCP and UDP.
The process of transforming a data representation from a storage or transmission format back into an object in memory, typically as part of a system integration process. This is the reverse of the marshalling process.
Validation is the process of verifying that data meets certain requirements, such as accuracy, completeness, and consistency, before it is processed or stored in a system. This helps to ensure that the data is of high quality, reducing the risk of errors or inconsistencies in data processing and analysis. There are a varied of data validation rules that can be defined within the GLU.Console for each parameter being handled.
Web Services
A standardised way of facilitating communication between electronic devices and integrating Web-based applications over a network.
One of the few ways web applications can communicate with each other and allows you to send real-time data from one application to another whenever a given event occurs.
Anytime someone check-ins in, you’d be able to run any processes that you had in your application once this event is triggered. Use a webhook to connect a payment gateway with your email marketing software so that a user gets an email whenever a payment bounces.
XML (Extensible Markup Language): A markup language used for encoding and exchanging structured data between systems. XML is often used as a data format for data integration and data exchange between different systems.
YAML (Yet Another Markup Language): A human-readable data serialisation format used for data configuration and data exchange between systems.
Zero-Code Integration
Zero-Code Integration – analogous to No-Code Integration, an integration approach enabled by GLU.Ware that allows users to connect and integrate different systems and applications without writing any code, using a visual interface and pre-built connectors.
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